How to Improve the Lives of Women Around the World


Women are adult female humans, while girls are young females. Often used for a range of roles, women can be defined as both males and females. They are smaller than men and give birth to babies. Though historically women were treated differently from men, the advancement of women’s rights in the 20th century has changed the way women are treated. So how does one improve the lives of women around the world? Read on for some tips.

The Biden administration is announcing numerous programs that help women but doesn’t define what a woman is. These agencies have boasted about their initiatives to improve the lives of women but refuse to define what a woman is. The Biden administration also fails to explain the meaning of the word “woman” in their literature. Despite the lack of clarity, a simple definition of a woman is not enough. There are many other terms used to describe women, and it’s crucial that these terms are used consistently.

The lack of equality between men and women has profound socio-economic implications. Empowering women to lead productive lives fuels vibrant economies and spurs growth. Despite these benefits, however, gender inequality persists in most societies. Women still lack equal access to decent employment, face occupational discrimination, and gender wage gaps, and are often denied access to basic education and health care. This lack of equality is particularly alarming in the developing world, where women face numerous challenges in their daily lives.

In the 1970s, the gender pay gap began to narrow, with women earning 10 percent to thirty percent less than men. Women working full-time in 2010 earned 77% of a male’s hourly wage. In the same decade, women earning fifteen percent less than young men aged 15 to 24. The ILO estimates it will take 75 years to achieve equality of pay for equal work. But the progress made during the 1970s is notable. For example, women were expected to stay in the labor force after their education. As a result, they boosted their educational attainment and took courses aimed at careers and/or college majors.

While traditional notions of gender suggest that men and women are inherently similar, gender experts say that the reality is far more complicated. Women are, after all, billions of people. Women are also equally important. Women can perform various roles that men traditionally do. In fact, women were the primary spinners in many cultures. This is reflected in their social roles, such as being the cook, the dishwasher, and the distaff. So, what exactly does a woman look like?

In contrast, women are more likely to need sponsorship than men to get ahead at the top. This is because they are perceived by male-dominated committees as “risky” appointments. Furthermore, women were found to be twice as likely to be hired outside their own company, and less likely to win CEO competitions than men. Despite the increasing gender gap, women are still disproportionately underrepresented in senior positions. By ensuring a supportive environment, they can advance in their careers.

The Concept of Women Rights Around the World

women rights

The concept of women rights refers to the fundamental rights of women worldwide. These rights are the foundation for the feminist and women’s rights movements of the 20th century. These rights are not just the rights of women, they are the right to feel and act as they wish. The definition of these rights is complex. However, some aspects of women’s rights are universally agreed upon. The following are some of these universal rights that are commonly acknowledged in many countries around the world.

During the 1960s, many organizations for women began to organize and gain political and economic equality. Many countries recognized the need to combat discrimination against women, and the movement grew. Women were eventually allowed to hold full-time jobs, enter the workforce, get a degree, and divorce their husbands. Today, women can vote, be elected to office, and attend school. And their voices have been heard. But women still face discrimination and are often silenced by the male-dominated society.

Some countries, however, have made great strides toward gender equality. In 2015, Saudi Arabia allowed women to vote and run for office. However, progress has been limited in many areas. Across the world, women still earn less than men, and are subject to many inhumane laws. Some countries still don’t even have laws against child brides or marital rape. Others still practice honor killings and female genital mutilation.

However, it’s not only Democratic women who are vocal about their desire for gender equality. Moreover, Republicans also disagree on how far the country has come in advancing women’s rights. A recent survey found that only 30% of Americans believe gender equality has improved since the early 1960s. So, which side should we listen to? Which side does the Democratic party stand on this issue? In the United States, both parties have a significant stake in promoting women’s rights.

There are repressive laws against abortion across the world. While many countries prohibit it, others allow only limited exceptions. In some countries, a medical certificate or court decision is required for a woman to obtain an abortion. These laws are often a source of violence and encourage clandestine abortions. If these laws are passed, it can harm millions of women and girls. However, the United Nations has repeatedly called for the end of repressive laws and enshrines women’s rights in a fundamental way.

Furthermore, women’s economic rights are often undermined by unpaid care work, inadequate pay and job security. The lack of equality translates into a lack of opportunity for women to earn a living and own property. Women spend double or triple the time performing domestic work compared to men. Furthermore, they work much longer hours than men. Moreover, over 2.7 billion women do not have access to the same opportunities as men do. Further, laws restrict the types of work that women are allowed to do.

Women’s suffrage was first granted in New Zealand in 1893. Over time, the movement spread to other countries and has now become an international right. Today, women’s suffrage is included in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Despite this progress, women continue to face discrimination in the labour market, access to economic assets, and even the political process. In some regions, women are excluded from politics, limiting their participation in peace processes.

How to Address Gender Inequality

gender inequality

It’s no secret that women are less educated than men. Nearly a quarter of 15-24-year-olds will not complete primary school. And nearly two thirds of the world’s illiterates are women. This fact is a grave concern, especially when considering the impact on the future of girls not educated at the same level as boys. Fortunately, there are some ways to improve the situation. One option is to encourage government and business partnerships to invest in the education of women.

While it’s true that men are more likely to obtain higher salaries in some fields, there are also other factors at play. In addition to pay, other factors contribute to the gender pay gap, such as overtime. Ultimately, this results in lower wages for women. For example, women are likely to be forced to perform a great deal of unpaid labor that is not recognized financially. But that’s not all. There are many other ways to address gender inequality, and these methods aren’t limited to legal reform.

As an individual, there are many ways to help improve gender equality. First, you can advocate for yourself in your career, help others advance through sponsorship, mentorship, or other means. Second, you can actively support women with high potential. Finally, you can talk up when you recognize unconscious biases. Ultimately, you can also make a difference by backing companies that are actively advancing gender equality. The possibilities are endless. The next step is to take action!

Organizational processes and structures also play a role in creating gender inequality. Some organizational structures, practices, and decisions are sexist, and a lack of gender equality can lead to higher numbers of sexist employees. These factors can also affect recruitment and retention. You can promote gender equality in your organization by adjusting your selection and attraction processes. That way, you can improve your workplace culture and attract more diverse employees. You’ll be more likely to create an environment where everyone can thrive.

Raising female employment rates to Sweden’s level will raise GDP by $6 trillion. However, the cost of flexibility reduction must be balanced by reshuffling jobs. This change will bring gender equality as well as couple equity. If you’re not ready to give up your job, you can demand greater temporal flexibility. In fact, you should ask for more control over your hours and days of work if you want a better life with your partner.

The problem of gender inequality continues to plague societies worldwide. Although women and girls have made huge strides in recent decades, gender equality is still far from being achieved everywhere. Several factors contribute to this issue, including automation trends and the COVID-19 pandemic. By investing in gender equality, you’ll be lifting the global economy and fostering a more equal society. There is no better time than the present to make it a reality.

The biggest pay gap between men and women occurs in the United States. While women have improved since 1979, the difference remains large and persists. In 1979, American women made 62 percent of what their male counterparts earned. Today, they earn 81 percent. This gender pay gap is still significant and will continue to affect American society for years to come. While American women earn less than men, the biggest pay gaps are in the management sector. In 2016, men earned an average of $88,000 compared to only $55,000 for women in management positions. The smallest pay gap is in the construction sector, where women make up only nine percent of the workforce.

Global Impact of Sexual Violence

sexual violence

When individuals commit acts of sexual violence, their actions are often motivated by their underlying gender identity or sexual orientation. This is often referred to as “corrective rapes,” performed to change an individual’s sexual orientation or gender expression to conform to heterosexual or gender-accepting norms. People who identify as asexual are especially vulnerable to such attacks. While there are many contributing factors, research indicates that each has an additive effect on a victim’s risk of becoming a victim of sexual violence.

Psychological effects of sexual violence can include depression, anxiety, and difficulty sleeping. Survivors of sexual violence may experience intrusive memories, mood swings, and feelings of numbness. They may also experience a heightened sense of shame, fear, or numbness. Many survivors may also feel guilty or shame, and may even want to isolate themselves from others. These reactions can lead to an unhealthy emotional state that will eventually interfere with one’s ability to function and enjoy life.

Victims of sexual violence may also experience other emotional reactions, including anger and self-blame. The impact on a community can be profound. Fear and anger are common reactions, and sexual violence destroys trust and safety in a community. In addition to the direct impact on a victim’s health, sexual violence also imposes significant costs on employers. Not only do survivors’ health and productivity suffer, but their companies also face the financial and reputational damage of sexual violence.

The perpetrator must be able to coerce the victim into engaging in a penetrative sex act. A perpetrator may overpower the victim, ignore verbal resistance, or hold the victim down in order to penetrate. Sexual assault may also involve threats, physical force, or even the use of a weapon against the victim. When it comes to establishing whether a victim has consent, it is important to remember that the definitions of sexual violence differ from state to state.

Data on sexual violence is a key component to assessing its global impact. Most of the available data come from police and clinical settings. Nongovernmental organizations also report their data on sexual violence. The data available are often incomplete and prone to bias. While most data sources are reliable, they often fail to reflect the entire scope of the problem. A small portion of sexual violence is reported to police, but there are large sections of the problem that are not.

In some cases, the perpetrator may be able to hide their actions. In such cases, the victim may have no physical injuries to show that he or she was sexually assaulted. Despite this, the victim may question whether she is capable of stopping the violence. The offender may use threats, weapons, or coercive actions, or the victim may be unconscious or incapacitated. Further, the victim may have lied about the assault, resulting in a false report. The number of false reports of sexual violence is surprisingly low, and the amount is comparable to other crimes in Canada.

It’s important to seek help if you’ve been a victim of sexual violence. There are a variety of organisations and support services to help victims and survivors deal with this terrible situation. For support, you can take a support person to the police station to document the assault. Additionally, you can write down all the details of the assault so that you can later report it to the police. If you feel comfortable enough, call 1800 RESPECT (1800 737 732) for free 24-hour counselling.

How Victim Blaming Affects Society

victim blaming

The effects of socioeconomic status and power differentials on victim blaming are unclear. However, some research suggests that rape myths interact with gender and can affect the victim’s perception of blame. Participants who believed that rape is motivated by power blamed the victim more than those who believed it was sexual motivation. This result supports the notion that victim blaming may be shaped by socioeconomic status and power differences.

Victim blaming is harmful for society. It silences victims, which further reinforces the predatory attitudes. It also discourages victims from reporting crimes and seek help. The victims are also burdened with unhelpful emotions and toxic self-blame, which further compounds the cycle of crime. So, what can we do? Let’s consider some of the common ways victim blaming can affect our society.

Studies have found a negative association between race and victim blaming. White participants were more likely to blame unattractive assailants than their male counterparts. This relationship may be influenced by other factors, such as the gender of the perpetrator. Therefore, studies of victim blaming should examine these variables and make sure to account for these factors. A more transparent scenario is crucial for future studies on victim blaming.

There are many other causes of victim blaming, ranging from personal experiences to the psychological impact of traumatic events. But the common underlying cause of victim blaming is emotional, and may not be easy to pin down. The main effect of victim blaming is the illusion that one is in control of their fate and can change their circumstances. In addition, victim blaming implies that people who are victimized are choosing to be victimized, and that doing the right thing can prevent it from happening.

The most prominent example of obvious victim blaming occurs when a character blames a victim for their misfortune. This often occurs in narrative form, which establishes the author as a jerk. For example, a story about a natural disaster may blame the victim for living in a disaster-prone area or preparing for the disaster adequately. But the use of such obvious victim blaming is almost exclusive to fundamentalists.

A third reason for victim blaming occurs is because of the victim’s belief that they are partially responsible for the misfortune. This theory essentially holds victims partially responsible for their own harm. However, it’s important to remember that blaming a victim is not always about blame, and it is not always about the victim’s fault. In other words, the victim does not necessarily need to be the cause of the incident.

Studies of victim blaming must involve a female victim and a male assailant. In addition, victim blaming studies must involve either a written or visual scenario that portrays an acquaintance rape. The studies must also assess the victim’s likelihood of blaming the assailant. This study, therefore, has several important implications for the field of victim blaming.

How to Bet on Togel Hongkong

togel hongkong

If you have a passion for betting and enjoy the thrill of high-stakes gambling, then you should definitely check out the togel hongkong! This online game is popular among many people around the world, and the bermain of togel hkg is a cherished pastime for many men. You can also learn about the rules and etiquette of togel hongkong in this article.

Togel hongkong adalah pasaran

If you want to learn how to play togel, the first thing that you need to know is where you can play the game. Most people play this game offline, but online togel is far more popular and profitable. You can find various types of togel games online, each with its own price range and promotions. It’s important to know where to play to get the best odds and be successful!

A good example is a sgp/hk data table. You’ll find the same data on a hk toto table as you would on a Singapore toto table, so the data in tabel toto hk is the same as in a sgp table. If you want to play togel in a different way, check out online casino sites.

Result hk adalah lembaga

Result Hongkong is the official lottery of Hong Kong. The draw for the lottery takes place every week on the first Friday of the month. There are over three million tickets in circulation. The winner gets a prize of $1 million, which is worth RM1.8 billion. There are two prizes: the first is the HK Prize 1st, and the second is the Hongkong Prize 2nd. Both prizes are drawn from six-dimentional drawings.

Togel HK is one of the most popular forms of online betting. It is widely available on the Internet, making it a convenient way to wager your money. To play, you can visit any website of Hongkong pools or a sportsbook. There are even betting apps available for smartphones and tablets. The website is updated constantly, and the information is updated daily.

Tempat bermain

Tempat bermain in Hong Kong is a fun way to spend the afternoon, and there are a variety of attractions to choose from. One such attraction is Snoopy’s World. This interactive park is located in 3 Sha Tin New Town Plaza Shopping Mall and has several zones for children to play. It is the perfect place to bring the whole family along for a truly unique experience. If you love Peanuts and want to play with the characters, this is the place for you.

If your child loves to ride, don’t miss the chance to go to Disneyland. With its two RC Racers, this roller coaster has a 27-meter height. There are also many other thrilling rides, such as the Cinderella Carousel, which takes about 30 minutes to complete. And don’t forget to take in the incredible view of Hong Kong from the top of the sky!

Price 1st

Togel Hongkong prize draws are held at specific times every week and are highly contested, so it is necessary to keep track of the dates and times of the draw to know the odds of winning. Here are some useful tips on how to bet on togel in Hongkong. Price 1st at Togel Hongkong results are usually posted by 23:00 WIB. The results for toto sgp and hk prizes are posted in the singapore pools.

The main aim of the togel lottery is to offer high-quality products to its customers, and Price 1st at Togel Hongkang is a prime example. It is the top prize, which will pay out a lot to winners in a week. The price of a single ticket will vary, but the minimum amount is RM50. Upon purchasing a ticket, the winner will be notified by SMS.

Result hk adalah nomor hadiah

Result hongkong adli nomor hadiah is a result that is calculated based on the number of bets made by players. There are many rules and regulations that govern the game, but the main focus is the result. This is a high-volume activity that requires high-quality services to run smoothly. This article will discuss some of the most important rules to be aware of while playing togel.

The first rule in toto macau is to know the rules before placing your bet. There are several types of bets that you can make. You can either play in the traditional way or try your luck with online games. If you want to try your luck with online games, you can visit a website for the best odds. A website called toto macau has a lot of information on the process, which can be confusing.

What Defines a Woman?


What defines a woman? Many people have different views of the qualities a woman should have and the traits that men should have. The public values honesty and morality. It also values physical beauty and nurturing. This list is not exhaustive and it’s important to consider different viewpoints. Women’s roles in society are also changing. In a society where gender roles are becoming less important and more complicated, it is vital to challenge sexist assumptions and create a more gender-neutral society.

Despite this progress, the number of women in top positions is still disproportionate to their numbers. Only seven women have been elected heads of state. In the same way, there are fewer women than men in elected council positions and mayors. Furthermore, most of the women on the Forbes rich list come from a wealthy family or business dynasty. The number of women in top positions may be low, but that doesn’t mean they’re not achieving success.

In some countries, women and girls are targeted due to their gender and societal status. They may not have the opportunity to earn, own property, or lead a successful business. Because of this, they are excluded and face stigmatization, which can lead to hostility. Religious fundamentalism, gender norms, and a lack of equality are all causes of discrimination against women. But addressing these problems is a long-term commitment. In the meantime, every woman and girl deserves a better future.

According to Juliet Williams, a UCLA professor of gender studies, women are not only female, but they also possess characteristics of femininity that are common to all females. The term woman has long been politically charged. Even though the 19th Amendment granted women the right to vote, many Black women were excluded from exercising their right. During Jim Crow, women’s bathrooms were labeled “men’s”, “women’s”, and “colored”–a clear example of the white supremacy that deprived Black women of the right to vote.

Jackson’s response to Blackburn’s question was widely praised by philosophers of biology, gender law scholars, and scientists. She suggested that science could answer Blackburn’s question but, even if biologists were fully equipped to do so, they still wouldn’t be able to come up with a definitive answer. As a result, scientists and philosophers of science agree that there’s no way to define what makes someone a woman. After all, there are billions of women on the planet.

The fight for equality for women started decades before the Civil War. In the late 1700s, the campaign for equal rights for women began. Most states had already passed legislation granting women the right to vote, but women were still excluded from certain roles. Temperance leagues, religious movements, moral reform societies, and anti-slavery organizations were among the reformers who gained prominence in these decades. The prevailing idea that only white women were “true” was a controversial one. The National Woman’s Party proposed an Equal Rights Amendment in 1923. While the Equal Rights Amendment was not passed, some western states began to grant women the vote in the 19th century. These included Utah and Idaho.

The role of a mother is different across cultures. Most cultures expect mothers to stay home and raise their children. However, some mothers return to paid work after having children. Sirimavo Bandaranaike, a Sri Lankan politician who was elected as prime minister in 1960, was a prime example of an influential role played by women in the country’s political life. Among the sectors where women are the leading initiators of outside help, women play a crucial role.

Women’s Rights – How Do We Recognize Them?

women rights

Women’s rights are the rights of women worldwide. The feminist movement and women’s rights movement were born from the demands for these rights. But how do we recognize them? Where can we find these rights? Read on to learn more. But first, what are women’s rights? Here are some definitions:

The UN adopted a convention in 1977 called the Convention on the Status of Women, or CEDAW. This convention set the obligations of states to protect the rights of women. In addition to human rights, it also set the legal definition of gender equality. It was also the first treaty to explicitly define women’s rights. Some of the rights cited by the CEDAW include enforcement of anti-discrimination laws, equal pay, child-care centers, and tax deductions for child-care expenses. Some rights have not been enshrined in the Convention, however.

The Women’s Rights Movement was a step in the right direction. Today, nearly half of adults agree that the country has made progress towards gender equality, although it still has a long way to go. A majority of adults (50%) say the United States has come a long way in the past decade, while nearly one-third think things are the same as they were a decade ago. Despite these significant advances, one-in-ten Americans say the U.S. has made little progress on achieving gender equality.

The fight for gender equality began in the early twentieth century. Margaret Sanger was a leading feminist and advocate for birth control. In 1965, the Supreme Court declassified birth control information as obscene, allowing married couples to obtain contraceptives legally. The women’s franchise league was formed in 1889. In 1889, the Women’s Property Act significantly altered English law. The Act made it legal for married women to have equal property rights with men.

The struggle against misogyny and patriarchy must begin with governments ensuring equal rights for men and women. In particular, FIDH calls for ratification of international and regional instruments protecting women’s rights and reforms of national laws. That is, government agencies must work with state bodies to ensure equality and justice for women. If they do not, they will face repercussions. It is a necessary part of women’s rights.

Many things were made possible due to the work of women. In addition to equality in marriage and sex, women’s rights have transformed the social roles of women around the world. Women’s progress in the last 150 years has been a hero story. Women’s rights activism has also paved the way for thousands of state and federal laws. And in the process, women’s issues are becoming hot topics in society today. In fact, there have been hundreds of changes in laws and social roles as a result.

The fight for equality for women began in the late nineteenth century, when the National Organization for Women was founded in New York. Soon, women gained equal political rights in many European countries. The goal of emancipation became a common goal. It became legal for women to work full-time, get married, and attend university. But the fight for equal rights continued for the next century and a half. With more rights, women finally achieved the equality that they had been waiting for.

How to Address Gender Inequality in the Workplace

gender inequality

Gender inequality is still a problem in the United States, but the problem is getting better. There are many reasons for this, including the persistent gap between men and women in the labor force and traditional social norms. In some industries, gender disparity is so wide that women earn less than men do. The problem is particularly widespread in the manufacturing industry, where women earn 76 percent less than men. In some industries, however, the difference is smaller, while in other fields it is much wider.

To make a difference, individuals can play an active role in fighting gender inequality. They can advocate for themselves in the workplace and help others advance through sponsorship and mentoring. They can be proactive about supporting talented women in their professional lives, and they can challenge their own unconscious biases. Individuals with families can aim to raise sons and daughters who are free of gender constraints. Those with money can also support companies that promote gender equality and invest in women.

Leaders must eliminate workplace discrimination and gender gaps in career advancement. There are concrete ways to do this, such as a transparent pay scale. Employees can also play an active role in promoting gender equality by becoming allies with the leadership and providing honest feedback. The goal is to create an environment where everyone feels equally valued. In turn, this will create a positive culture for all employees. You can create a workplace environment that promotes gender equality by following these steps.

The mindset of society is also a significant factor in determining how women are treated. There are two ways to look at gender inequality: essentialist and cultural. Essentialist arguments argue that there are differences between men and women, and cultural accounts argue that the differences are due to social norms. Neither theory fully explains the cause or solution of gender inequality. Nonetheless, these two approaches are critical to progress in a society. So how can we address the problem in the workplace?

One of the ways to combat gender inequality is by increasing access to education for women. Women do not have the same opportunities as men do, which is a huge problem. A quarter of girls aged fifteen to 24 years old do not complete primary school. That’s almost one-fourth of all people in the world. In the same way, the lack of education for girls can have a drastic impact on their future. The goal of equal opportunity for women and girls in all sectors should be a global imperative.

In addition to empowering women, companies can take several steps to fight gender inequality. They can hire and promote women with different skill sets and backgrounds, and encourage an inclusive environment. Many companies are experimenting with flexible working hours, family-friendly policies, and rethinking performance reviews and promotions to improve the working conditions of women. Additionally, they can design their policies to ensure that they are supportive of women. All of these steps can improve the workplace for everyone.

The Myths and Facts About Sexual Violence

There are many myths about sexual violence, which can make the experience feel more’real’ to the victim. Many people feel that sexual violence involves weapons, flashbacks, or visible injuries. The reality is that many victims of sexual violence do not move or scream. Rather, they remain motionless or unable to move, and the perpetrator is unlikely to leave a visible mark. In addition, there is often no need for the perpetrator to be seen or arrested.

The most visible and widely discussed forms of sexual violence involve rape, assault, groping, and harassment. Sexual violence affects people of all ages, genders, and faiths. It is also more common among people in minority groups who are denied resources or are not accepted by society. People who commit sexual violence rarely seek out a victim of sexuality or are attracted to the victim’s power. Therefore, victims of such violence are often vulnerable to exploitation and discrimination.

The effects of sexual violence are many, but they are incredibly different for every victim. A survivor may experience physical or emotional effects that range from depressed feelings to extremes of fear and anger. In addition, they may feel shame or a deep sense of guilt about the violence. But, no matter what, the trauma of sexual violence can be life-altering. It can also have a devastating impact on a victim’s employment or schooling.

Despite its widespread prevalence, the number of victims of sexual violence is still very low. Data relating to sexual violence is scattered and often incomplete. The police data is often inaccurate and only covers a small portion of cases. In addition, data from medico-legal clinics are likely biased towards cases of sexual violence, especially if the perpetrator has a history of abuse. However, this information can still help survivors of sexual violence move on with their lives.

The definition of rape varies by state. In England and Wales, it is a crime to cause someone to perform a penetrative sex act without consent. Without consent, this could include kissing, rubbing, or touching clothing. It is also illegal to manipulate a victim into performing an act without consent. It can even involve threats or physical force. If you are unable to obtain consent, you may be committing sexual violence against the victim.

Moreover, the number of victims of sexual violence varies based on the culture of the perpetrator. In egocentric cultures, the focus is on the self and independence. In egocentric cultures, the victim is more likely to express shame and guilt in a public way than in a socially oriented culture. And, in patriarchal cultures, resistance may be seen as an insult to manhood. Either way, it is important to recognize the impact sexual violence has on victims and respond to the attacks.

Women are at a higher risk of sexual violence than men. It also affects their health. Research suggests that sexual violence can increase risky sexual behaviors in later life, and it can lead to an increased risk of smoking and drug use. Further, sexual violence is often linked with psychological and behavioral problems, including substance abuse, suicide attempts, and gastrointestinal disorders. The effects of sexual violence on children extend to the perpetrators as well as their victims.