Women’s Rights in Afghanistan
All women have the right to choose a husband and have children of their own. They also have the right to be free from the fear of gender-based violence. This includes rape, female genital mutilation, forced marriage, and forced pregnancy and sterilization. Furthermore, they have the right to access reproductive health services such as contraception.
Women’s rights are recognized in several international treaties. One of the most comprehensive is the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). The Convention condemns all forms of discrimination against women and affirms the equal rights of men and women. It was adopted on 18 December 1979 and entered into force on 3 September 1981. As of May 2014, 188 states were members of CEDAW.
International human rights law requires that States protect women from violence and abuse. For example, States must prohibit soldiers from raping women. They must also criminalize domestic violence. Despite the many violations, the international community continues to recognize the importance of women’s human rights and the importance of women human rights defenders.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) has long promoted the rights of women. As early as 1974, the UN General Assembly adopted a declaration calling on all states to implement the Geneva Convention and to take appropriate measures to protect women during conflict. This was later incorporated into the UN Doc. A/RES/3318.
International human rights law recognizes the equal participation of men and women in society. This includes equal rights in employment, education, and political processes. It also aims to eradicate discrimination and create an equal gender playing field. A fundamental human right, gender equality is essential for a peaceful and productive society. It also promotes economic growth and development.
The Second World Conference on Women, held in Copenhagen in 1980, emphasized the importance of women’s rights. The conference also called for stronger national measures that will guarantee women’s ownership of property and ensure their equality in inheritance, child custody, and loss of nationality. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has been instrumental in promoting women’s rights and advancing gender equality worldwide.
Afghanistan’s peace deal with the Taliban has many implications for Afghan women. Afghanistan’s Taliban regime imposed social restrictions on women in the 1990s that prevented them from accessing health care, education, and employment. The Taliban also prohibited women from entering public spaces without a male chaperon. The Taliban regime destroyed the country’s institutions and economy.
International human rights law protects women’s reproductive rights. In a case called Airey v. Ireland, the European Court determined that the country violated the rights of women when the procedure was prohibitively expensive. This deprived women of access to the courts and violated women’s right to privacy. In addition to these rights, women must be able to access diagnostic services in order to make an informed decision about an abortion.
The ICESCR also recognizes that women have the right to work. In addition to providing equal opportunities to women, the ICESCR also recognizes the right to equal wages and decent living conditions. Additionally, the ICESCR and other regional human rights treaties also provide protections for pregnant employees, workers with children, and new mothers.